تعیین شاخص های تنش خشکی برای گزینش تیمار کودی مناسب در زراعت ذرت علوفه ای

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسنده

عضو هیأت علمی گروه کشاورزی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد فراهان، فراهان-ایران

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تعیین شاخص های تنش خشکی برای بررسی تیمار کودی مناسب در گیاه ذرت علوفه ای، هیبرید ماکسیما آزمایش هایی جداگانه طی سالهای 1393 و 1394 در اراک انجام شد. این آزمایش به صورت اسپلیت اسپلیت پلات و در قالب طرح پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل آبیاری در دو سطح آبیاری کامل (I0) و کم آبیاری (I1) به عنوان عامل اصلی، نیتروکسین در سه سطح 0، 5/0 و 1 لیتر به ازاء هر 30 کیلوگرم بذر و نیتروژن در سه سطح 0، 125 و 250 کیلوگرم در هکتار بود که به عنوان عوامل فرعی در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج نشان داد از میان شاخص های مورد مطالعه,STI GMP و MP مناسب ترین شاخص ها برای تعیین تیمار کودی برتر، برای رسیدن به بالاترین مقدار عملکرد علوفه تولیدی در هر دو شرایط آبیاری مطلوب و اعمال تنش خشکی می باشد. با توجه به این که بیشترین مقدار عملکرد علوفه تحت هر دو شرایط آبیاری مطلوب و تنش خشکی از ترکیب تیماری مصرف 1 لیتر نیتروکسین به ازاء 30کیلوگرم بذر همراه با 250 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار (No2N2) به دست آمد، این تیمار به عنوان مطلوب ترین ترکیب تیماری گزینش شد.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


1- Abolhasani, Kh. A. and Saeedi, Gh. A. 2006. Evaluation of drought tolerance of Safflower lines based on tolerance and sensitivity indices to water stress. Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources Journal. 10 (3): 407-418.

2- Acosta-Gallegos, J. A. and Adams, M. W. 1991. Plant traits and yield stability of dry bean cultivars under drought stress. J. Agric. Sci. Camb. 117: 213-219.

3- Ahmadi, J. 2008. Evaluation of drought tolerance in maize hybrid business late. Master's thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, TehranUniversity, 230 p.

4- Ahmadzadeh, M. 1997. Determination of the best indicator of drought tolerance in maize elite lines. Breeding Master's thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, TehranUniversity, 238 pages.

5- Aliakbari, R. G., Razi, H. and Kazemeini, S. A. 2010. Evaluation of drought tolerance in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cultivars using drought tolerance indices. International journal of advanced biological and biomedical research. 2: 696-705.

6- Choghakaboodi, Z., Zebarjadi, A. and Kahrizi, D. 2012. Evaluation of drought tolerance in canola genotypes in farm and laboratory condition. 17: 28-37 (in Persian).

7- Choukan, R., Taherkhani, T., Ghanndha, M. R. and Khodarahmi, M. 2006. Evaluation of drought tolerance in maize lines with drought tolerance indices. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences. 8(1): 79-89.

8- Clark, J. M, Depauw, R. M. and Ownley-Smith, T.F. 1992. Evaluation of methods for quantification of droughttolerance in wheat. Crop Sci. 32: 723-728.

9- Farshadfar, A. 1994. Determination of locate the stability of chromosomes and genes controlling phenotypic and physiological criteria for drought tolerance. Third Iranian Congress of Crop Sciences, University of Tabriz.

10- Farshadfar, E., Poursiahbidi, M. M. and Safavi, S. M. 2013. Assessment of drought tolerance in landraces of bread wheat based on resistance/tolerance indices. International journal of advanced biological and biomedical research.1( 2): 143-158.

11- Fereres, E., Gimenez, C. and Fernandez, J.M. 1986. Genetic variability in sunflower cultivars under drought, I: Yield relationships. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 37: 573-582.

12- Fernandez, G.C. 1992. Effective Selection criteria for assessing of plant stress tolerance. In proceeding of a sympo. Taiwan. 13-16 aug. 1992. By C. G. Kuo. AVRDC.

13- Fisher, R. A. and Maurer, R. 1978. Drought Tolerance in spring wheat cultivars. I. Grain yield Response: Aust. Jour. Agri. Res. 29: 897-912.

14- Frayedi, Y. 2004. Assessment of drought resistance in Kabuli chickpea genotypes. Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 6(2): 27-38.

15- Grzesiak, S., Filek, W., Skrudlik, G. and Niziol, B. 1996. Screening for drought resistance: evaluation of seed germination and seedling growth for drought resistance in legume plants. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 177: 245- 252.

16- Kakaei, M., Zebarjadi, A., Mostafaei, A. and Rezaeizadeh, A. 2010. Identification of rapeseed drought tolerance genotypes using tolerance indices. Electronic Journal of Crop Production. 2: 107-124.

17- Khalili, M., Kazemi, H., Moghaddam, M. and Shakiba, M. R. 2004. Evaluation of drought resistance indices in late maize genotypes at different growth stages. Proceedings of the 8th Iranian Congress of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan. 25-27 Aug, p: 41.

18- Moghaddam, A. 1998. Final Report of the Drought Tolerant Maize commercial hybrids and parent lines delayed the. Research Bulletin, No. 77.213, Agricultural Scientific Information and Documentation Centre.

19- Moghaddam, A. and Hadizadeh, M. H. 2000. Evaluation Use of compression stress in the selection of drought tolerant maize varieties. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences. 2(3): 24-33.

20- Moghaddam, A. and Hadizadeh, M. H. 2002. Response of maize hybrids and their parental lines to drought using different stress tolerance indices. Seed and Plant Journal. 18(3): 255-272.

21- Mozaffari, K., Arshy, Y. and Zeinali khanghah, H. 1996. Effects of water stress and yield component traits morphophysiologic in Sunflower. Seed and Plant Journal. 12(3): 24-32.

22- Naeemi, M., Akbari, Gh. A. and Shiranirad, A. H. 2007. Investigation of some morphological and agronomical traits of rapeseed cultivars in response to withheld irrigation at reproductive growth stages. Agricultural Research. 7(3): 223-234 (in Persian).

23- Narooyi rad, M. R., Abbasi, M. R. and Mohammad ghasemi, M. 2009. Evaluation of drought tolerance using indicators of stress tolerance in sorghum landraces collected in National Plant Gene Bank of Iran. Journal of Research and Development in Agriculture. 82: 11-18.

24- Osborne, S. L., Shepers, J. S., Fransis, D.D. and Schlemmer M. R. 2002. Use of spectral radiance to in season biomass and grain yield in nitrogen water-stressed corn. Crop Sci. 42: 165-171.

25- Ramirez-Vallejo, P. and Kelly, J. D. 1998. Traits related to drought resistance in common bean. Euphytica 99: 127-136.

26- Rosielle, A. T. and Hamblin, J. 1981. Theorical aspect of selection for yield in stress and non – stress environment. Crop Sci. 21: p.493.USA.

27- Shafazadeh, M.K., Yazdansepas, A., Ashkbos, A. and Ghannadha, M.R. 2004. Evaluation of terminal drought tolerance in promising winter and facultative wheat genotypes using stress susceptibility and tolerance indices. Seed and Plant Journal. 20(1): 57-71.

28- Schneider, K. A., Rosales-Serna, R., Ibarra-Perez, F., Cazares-Enriques, B., Acosta-Gallegos, J. A., Ramirez-Vallejo, P., Wassimi, N. and Kelly, J. D. 1997. Improving common bean performance under drought stress. Crop Sci. 37:43-50.

29- Shoaa hoseini, S. M., Farsi, M. and Khavari khorasani, S. 2008. Effects of water deficit stress on yield and yield components of some maize hybrids using path analysis. Journal of Agricultural Science. 18(1): 71-85.

30- Souri, J., Dehghani, H. and Sabbaghpoor, S.J. 2005. Study of genotypes of chickpea under water stress. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 36(6): 1517-1527.

31- Vaisimalamiri, V., Haghparast, R., Aghayi sarbarzeh, M., Farshadfar, E.A. and Rajabi, R. 2010. Evaluation of drought tolerance in barley genotypes (Hordeum vulgare L.) Using physiological characteristics and indicators of drought tolerance. Seed and Plant Journal. 1-26(1): 43-60.